Cardiomyopathy is a heart condition that impairs the heart's ability to pump blood. There are several different kinds of cardiomyopathies, and valvular cardiomyopathy refers to dilated cardiomyopathy. Dilated or Vulvular cardiomyopathy means that the left ventricle of the heart is enlarged and therefore less powerful than the left ventricle of a healthy heart. Dilated or Vulvular cardiomyopathy occurs when diseased heart muscle fibers become weakened and cannot effectively pump blood to the body. The weak heart muscles also allow one or more chambers of the heart to expand. With time, the enlarged heart gradually deteriorates, causing congestive heart failure. It occurs most often in middle age, and it affects more men than women. However, this disease can occur in people of all ages, including children.
Symptoms of Valvular Cardiomyopathy
Many people with with valvular cardiomyopathy have no symptoms or only minor symptoms, and live a normal life. Symptoms can occur at any age and may include:
Heart failure symptoms (shortness of breath and fatigue)
Swelling of the lower extremities
Fatigue (feeling overly tired)
Fainting (caused by conditions such as irregular heart rhythms, abnormal responses of the blood vessels during exercise, or no cause may be found)
Palpitations (fluttering in the chest due to abnormal heart rhythms)
Dizziness or lightheadedness
Blood clots due to blood flowing more slowly through the body. If a blood clot breaks off, it can be carried to the lungs (pulmonary emboli), kidney (renal emboli), brain (cerebral emboli or stroke), or limbs (peripheral emboli)
Chest pain or pressure (occurs usually with exercise or physical activity, but can also occur with rest or after meals)
Causes of Valvular Cardiomyopathy
Valvular cardiomyopathy can have a variety of causes. Illnesses or other medical conditions can bring on the disease, as can treatment for other conditions, such as chemotherapy to treat cancer. Other heart problems, such as hardened arteries or high blood pressure can lead to cardiomyopathy. An imbalance of vitamins, minerals, or iron could also be the culprit. Some of the most common causes of valvular cardiomyopathy are as follows;
Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Chronic, excessive alcohol consumption
Infections. Certain viral illnesses can cause an infection of the heart muscle known as acute myocarditis that may result in dilated cardiomyopathy.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by pregnancy or recent delivery.
Genetic: About 30 percent of the time, dilated cardiomyopathy occurs as a result of inheriting mutations in certain genes.
Test and Diagnosis of Valvular Cardiomyopathy
Chest X-Ray - An image of your heart will show whether it's enlarged.
Echocardiogram - An echocardiogram uses sound waves to produce images of the heart. Your doctor can use these images to examine the size of your heart and its motions as it beats.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) - In this noninvasive test, electrode patches are attached to your skin to measure electrical impulses from your heart. An ECG can show disturbances in the electrical activity of your heart, which can detect abnormal heart rhythms and areas of injury.
Cardiac Catheterization and Biopsy - In this procedure, a thin tube (catheter) is inserted in your groin and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart, where a small sample (biopsy) of your heart can be extracted for analysis in the laboratory. Pressure within the chambers of your heart can be measured to see how forcefully blood pumps through your heart. Pictures of the arteries of the heart can be taken during the procedure (coronary angiogram) to ensure that you do not have any blockage.
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Cardiac MRI is an imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create images of your heart. Cardiac MRI is often used in addition to echocardiography, particularly if the images from your echocardiogram aren't helpful in making a diagnosis.
Blood Tests - One blood test can measure B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a protein produced in your heart. Your blood level of BNP rises when your heart is subjected to the stress of heart failure, a common complication of cardiomyopathy.
A variety of other blood tests may be done, including those to check your kidney function and look for anemia and thyroid problems. Your iron level may be measured. Having too much may indicate an iron overload disorder called hemochromatosis. Accumulating too much iron in your heart muscle can weaken it and cause cardiomyopathy.
Valvular Cardiomyopathy Treatment
Treatment is aimed at correcting the cause of the condition wherever possible and at decreasing the heart size and decreases the hormones in the bloodstream that enlarge the heart. Following treatment can be suggested by the physician.
Drug Therapy - Most people improve by taking drugs, such as a beta-blocker, ACE inhibitorsor an ARB, and/or diuretics. Blood thinners may be used to prevent blood clots from occurring.
Lifestyle Changes - Lifestyle change can make a big difference in valvular cardiomyopathy and your heart health. Changes which are recommended include diet changes and exercise.
Other Surgical Treatments - Other treatments may be an option if you develop certain types or arrhythmia. These treatments include,
Cardioversion - This may be an option for some types of arrhythmia. Whilst under anaesthetic, you are given an electrical shock over the heart. This may revert the abnormal rhythm back to normal.
Artificial Pacemakers - These are used in cases of arrhythmia where the heart beats very slowly because of complete heart block and in certain other situations. An artificial pacemaker is a small device which is inserted just under the skin on the upper chest.Wires from the pacemaker are passed through veins into the heart chambers. The pacemaker can then stimulate the heart to maintain a regular normal heartbeat.
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs) - These are sometimes used in certain situations - especially if you are at risk of developing serious and life threatening arrhythmias. They are small devices which are similar to pacemakers and are inserted under the skin in the upper chest. Wires are passed through a vein to the heart. The device monitors the heartbeat. If it detects a change to an abnormal rhythm, the device can send a small electrical shock to the heart to stop the abnormal rhythm.
Surgery- Surgery may be advised to treat valve disease; scarred, thin heart muscle after heart attack; or congenital malformations. In addition, some patients may benefit from left ventricular assist device insertion. This procedure requires the patient to meet strict criteria and have advanced, end-stage heart failure.
Heart transplant or other heart failure surgical options
Advantages of Valvular Cardiomyopathy Treatment
The prognosis with valvular cardiomyopathy varies and depends on the severity of the condition.
The outcome varies. Some people will remain in a stable condition for long periods.
Cardiomyopathy can be corrected if the underlying disease can be cured.
In children, about one-third recover completely, one-third recover but continue to have some heart problems, and one-third die.
However, overall, the outlook for people with this disorder has improved a lot in the last ten years due to new drug treatments.
Possible Complications of Valvular Cardiomyopathy Treatment:
Side effects of medications, including:
Lightheadedness and fainting
Low blood pressure
Lupus reaction (a group of symptoms including a skin rash and arthritis)
Valvular Cardiomyopathy Treatment in India
The doctors and researchers in India actively contribute in developing new ways to diagnose and treat people who have critical heart disorders like valvular cardiomyopathy. Each year Indian doctors trained in heart care evaluate and treat thousands of people who have congestive heart failure. Cardiologists and other specialists staff works together as a team to diagnose and treat all forms of heart related disorders. The hospitals in India offer a “cutting-edge" treatment for different cardiac disorders and make management decisions based on opinions informed by the latest scientific data. Most hospitals in India have plenty of heart and vascular specialists who are widely known for their surgical skills.
Cities in India offering Valvular Cardiomyopathy Treatment at some of the best and top cardiac hospitals are as follows;
Cost of Valvular Cardiomyopathy Treatment in India
The cost of Treatment and Surgery of Heart Defects and disorders in India is very low as compared to the cost of the similar procedure charged in other western countries. This applies to treatment and surgeries of valvular cardiomyopathy in India. Even after adding travel and accommodation costs, treatment in India can result in up to 50 to 80% cost savings. All surgery and treatments are tailored to consider the needs of the travelling patient. India gives you the opportunity to have high class immediate (no waiting list) surgical and medical treatments at highly effective cost.
Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:
Located in South Asia, bordered by Pakistan, Nepal, China and Bangladesh, India is South Asia's largest, sovereign, democratic republic. India has an edge over other countries when it comes to offering comprehensive, cost-effective and timely medical care: it also offers an exotic, adventure-filled or cultural -if you wish array of destinations to discover and revel in for the travelers. Indian cities like Mumbai, Hyderabad, Goa, Bangalore, Nagpur, Kerala, Delhi, Pune, Jaipur, Chennai, Gurgaon, and Chandigarh offers best medical tourism service.
Mumbai - Formerly known as Bombay, is the commercial & financial capital city of India. Mumbai is famous for many things, including its thriving Bollywood film industry, teeming bazaars, colonial-style buildings, Art Deco structures and a superb choice of restaurants, often being rated as the dining capital of India. The tourist district of Colaba in Mumbai is a great place to start exploring this great city.
Hyderabad – Hyderabad city is a great place to visit in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The place has witnessed a continuous growth for last many years. Hyderabad has become a tourist hotspot following ever increasing number of tourists during past few years. Hyderabad has a well-founded reputation as one of the safest cities in the world.
Goa - The country's smallest state and famed for its colonial Portuguese and Catholic past, most tourists visit Goa for its endless selection of sandy beaches and coastal attractions. Standing proudly next to the Arabian Sea, Goa is a particularly compact state and often feels like a large town, being easy to travel. Around Goa, tourists will soon realize that the state has much more to offer than simply stunning beaches, fishing, water scooters, windsurfing and scuba diving.
Bangalore - Beauty lies in the eyes of beholder and if you want to see one of the most beautiful places in India then Bangalore is the word for it. Bangalore has earned sobriquets like 'Silicon Valley of India', 'Pub Capital of India', and 'City of Gardens'. Pleasant climate with colorful gardens with lakes and glittering nightlife, Bangalore has made its own attraction for travelers as one of the most charming cities in India,
Nagpur - Nagpur is the largest city in central India, but with its friendly atmosphere and dependable transportation, you’ll instantly feel at home. The city of Nagpur has a well-built infrastructure, is a clean and affluent city which makes a good jumping-off point for a series of trips into the far eastern corner of Maharashtra..
Kerala - Welcome to Kerala, state in India's southern tip and a state known as God's Own Country. Kerala is one of the ten 'Paradises Found' by the National Geographic Traveler, for its diverse geography and overwhelming greenery. It is a land much acclaimed for the contemporary nature of its cultural ethos, and much appreciated for the soothing, rejuvenating paradise that it is.
Delhi - Delhi, the capital of India is situated in the northern part of the country. Apart from being the capital of India, Delhi is also the travel hub of northern India. It serves as an excellent base for visiting the colorful state of Rajasthan, and Agra, the city of the Taj Mahal, is less than three hours away. Discover the many tales behind Delhi’s ancient, bewitching existence. Feel the excitement of stepping foot on a piece of the world’s oldest land!
Pune - Pune is the eighth largest city in the India state of Maharashtra. The city derives its name from Punya Nagari, which means 'the city of virtuous deeds.'Pune or the 'Queen of Deccan' is known for its educational, research and development institutions. This beautiful city has many exotic locales attracting innumerable tourists.
Jaipur – Jaipur is located in India and attracts a flurry of tourists from all over the world. Sited within eastern Rajasthan, North India, the city of Jaipur is famed for its hilltop fortresses, magnificent royal palaces and historic pink-painted sandstone architecture, earning it the affectionate nickname of the 'Pink City'.
Chennai - Chennai formerly known as Madras is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is famous for its culture and tradition. Chennai hosts a large cultural event, which includes performances by hundreds of artists. The city has a vibrant theatre scene and is an important centre for the Bharatanatyam, a classical dance form.
Gurgaon – It is one of the four important satellite cities of the National Capital Region and is often referred to as the 'Millennium City.' Gurgaon has recently emerged as the latest hub for Medical Tourism. Apart from being IT hub and a favorite haunt for MNC offices, the city has a number of world class hospitals that not only treat Indian citizens but also people from outside.
Chandigarh - Chandigarh is a rare epitome of modernization co-existing with nature's preservation. It is here that the trees and plants are as much a part of the construction plans as the buildings and the roads. India’s first planned city, Chandigarh is a rich, prosperous, spic and span, green city rightly called “THE CITY BEAUTIFUL”.
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