Category Archives: Uncategorized

Introduction to small renal tumors and prognostic indicators

Overview

Kidney cancer is among the third most common urologic malignancy and it indicates around 4 percent of the total malignancies in the US along. As pre reports, in 2010, 58,000 new cases pertaining to renal cell carcinoma were diagnosed and it has witnessed around 13,000 deaths. And the same report suggests that there is an increment of 2-4 percent of deaths witnessed due to these issues. Most of the cases are reported with small size tumors; hence one can find the stage migration over the incident cases of the renal cancerous tumor. But you can find lesions representing booth the benign and malignant tumors. The terminology called small renal mass can be introduced for all the small size tumors and the small renal masses are seen having defined over enhancing tumor that are less than the 4 centimeter diameter.

Understanding the renal tumors and prognostic indicators

If you find a small renal mass to be the RCC, it falls under the TNM category. Such kind of masses are seen with having one of the best prognosis with treatment, hence it not at all astonishing that despite the early diagnosis & treatment, the overall RCC specific mortality is reports and is certainly not seen decreasing in the recent years. In the current age, you can find pretreatment pathologic confirmation of the RCC that needs a core needle biopsy. Traditionally this biopsy is not often considered due to safety concerns and tumor accuracy and seeding. Importantly, the whole notion that biopsy simply results often change the management plans that end up reducing its utility, however, as the pathologic assessment are seen improving, this idea emerges as an important challenge for many.

Imaging Characteristics of small size renal masses

The diagnosis test options like CT is considered to be the primary imaging option, which is use di the characterization of renal masses, however, the option of ultrasound remains to be very much useful. With the ultrasound to be among the most common diagnostic method and could pose challenge to the diagnosis process of RCC. The sensitivity of the tests like ultrasound would reduce with the increasing size of tumor like that at one cm, the test is able to identity by 20 percent of masses as compared with the 76 percent identified by CT scan. The sensitivity of ultrasound would however enhance to 70 percent for tumors of 2 cm. The retroperitoneum and renal vasculature assessment of RCC seems to be very much limited, which is really vital in terms of tumor staging.Both the expert opinion and published guidelines thus would be seen supporting the use of cross-sectional imaging with techniques like CT scan or MRI in the workup of the renal tumor.

 Small Renal Mass Fig 3 - CT Image

Current Renal Treatment Methods and Results

The procedures like Radical Nephrectomy can be effective against the cancer specific cases; however, it is still regarded as technically unfavorable lesions in certain ways including the location and comorbidity point of view. The next treatment option like partial nephrectomy is also considered to be a standard option for the treatment option of small renal masses. Some experts claim that the desirable surgical margin of around half of cm can be seen with oncologist safety of any negative margin regardless of the size. Patients considering procedures like radical nephrectomy are often seen closer to the risk side of the chronic renal insufficiency than are very similar kinds of patients undergoing the procedure partial nephrectomy, with equivalent oncologic results. Lastly with the minimally invasive procedures the patients with renal tumors are able to get much better outcomes as compared to the other surgical procedures for obvious reasons. These reasons are backed with good amount of benefits that makes it to be the most preferred choice by both the patients and surgeons.

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

The tumor or cancerous cell which is growing in the neuro-endocrine system of the body which is a harmone producing cell, which is a development of cells which is joined between the nerve cells and traditional hormone-developing endocrine cells is called as Neuroendocrine Carcinomas. These cells is easily found in all organs f body including gastrointestinal tract which comprises of intestines and stomach and lungs also.

Some of the types of neuroendocrine Carcinomas tumors

There are numerous sorts of neuro-endocrine tumors. The major types of neuroendocrine tumors are neuroendocrine carcinoma, merkel cell cancer and pheochromocytoma. Some of the other types of cancerous cells, which is including carcinoid tumors, endocrine tumors, islet cell tumors, thyroid cancer, and thymoma.

Symptoms

Individuals who are affecting with Neuroendocrine Carcinomas tumor might experience the flowing signs and symptoms, which include:

  • Anxiety
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Diarrhea
  • Gastric ulcer disease
  • Headache
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Jaundice, which is the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
  • Loss of appetite or weight loss
  • Persistent fever or night sweats
  • Persistent cough or hoarseness
  • Persistent pain in a specific area
  • Skin rash
  • Thickening or lump in any part of the body
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Unexplained weight gain or loss

Sometimes individuals are facing some protein deficiency, nutritional deficiency.

Diagnosis and Treatment in India

There are some of the common list of test and exams that can be done by every doctors in the form of primary medical exams like:

  1. Blood/urine tests
  2. X-ray
  3. Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan
  4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  5. Biopsy
  6. Molecular testing of the tumor

Neuroendocrine Carcinomas1

Surgical Treatment options:

In caring for an individuals who are experiencing Neuroendocrine Carcinomas tumors, different types of experts make a team which is known as multidisciplinary team, to plan and overall treatment which is a combination of different treatment.

An explanation of the most used treatment choice which is available to treat Neuroendocrine Carcinomas tumors are mentioned below. Recommendation of treatment options is based on few factors which include the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer, patient’s preference, possible associated risks and complete health of an individual. Treatment for associated risks and symptoms is among the cancer care’s important part. It is best to become aware about the treatment options in order to ask your queries related to cancer which is unclear and it helps you to make a right decision with selection for treatment options.

  1. Surgery: It is main treatment option for any kind of cancer so is in the case of Neuroendocrine Carcinomas tumor. In this procedure the surgeon will remove the small border around the tumor which is called margin and the actual tumor. For this procedure you must consult with the oncologist surgeon who has done specialization in cancer treatment with surgery.
  2. Radiation therapy: In this procedure a high-energy x-ray radiations are used to eliminate the cancerous cells. It is generally performed on those location Neuroendocrine Carcinomas tumor has spread and makes it difficult to reach to perform surgery. For this kind of surgery you must consult with the radiation oncologist for best treatment. The radiation therapy schedule comprises of a number of sessions for a set of time.
  3. Chemotherapy: In this procedure to destroy cancerous cells drugs are utilized. This procedure is done usually by hindering the ability of cancer cell of growing and diving and spreading. For this there is no best doctor than medical oncologist to perform this type of treatment. This is done is order to treat some symptoms of the cancer and make the patient eligible for other kind of cancerous treatment.
  4. Targeted therapy: This procedure is basically targets the most specific tissues, proteins and genes which are responsible for growth and the survival of the cancerous cells. This procedure limits the healthy cell damage and blocks the cancerous cells growth and spreading of cancer cells.